Tissue storage monitoring are part and parcel of biomedical research. As a result, more efforts are being made to streamline the tissue banking procedure. This includes the collection, processing, and storage of tissue specimens.
A critical aspect of tissue banking is implementing a robust monitoring system. Specific parameters are considered to facilitate a sound tissue monitoring system. One of many considerations is environmental controls. Environmental controls are pre-qualified indicators that are accounted for in monitoring activity. The environmental controls include:
- storage size and space
- facility lighting
- physical repair and maintenance of the facility
- tissue traffic
- site location
Many of these controls pertain to preventing sources of contamination. It includes appropriate protocols to dispose of biohazard wastes used in tissue banks. These factors are crucial in maintaining the cleanliness of the facility. In addition, the quality physical state of tissue repositories is necessary.
Tissue Monitoring Parameters
Specific parameters are given priority in tissue monitoring. These are variables that have a direct impact on the quality of tissue yield. Therefore, it is of high necessity that their conditions are constant. Maintenance results in high-quality tissue deposits.
It is of constant priority to check temperature conditions in tissue banks. Any temperature excursion will enable the growth of microorganisms that will degrade tissues. Accumulation of such can deter further research after that.
There is also a specific temperature range depending on functional workspaces. For example, general work areas will have a higher temperature than storage banks with ultra-low temperature ranges.
Humidity is a contributory factor in tissue quality. Like temperature, humidity change may encourage microbial growth. For instance, the presence of molds is a biologically deterrent to tissue investigation.
Low relative humidity can also be a problem. Such conditions will turn materials excessively dry. Consequently, this may compromise the integrity of sterile instruments and supplies. In addition, when packaging becomes brittle, it disintegrates. As a result, it cannot maintain proper barrier opening tissue contamination.
A sound ventilation system is vital in operating tissue repositories. In principle, ventilation systems are designed to block the entry of air contaminants. However, air movement is equally important to maintain clean spaces.
Maintaining positive pressure in tissue banks is imperative. Adjoining spaces outside should also keep the same positive pressure. It is recommended that air changes should be at 20 total per hour in-room spaces.
Tissue banks are prone to a wide array of preservation methods. Such methods have prerequisite conditions that need monitoring solutions.
Preservation of cells requires tissue to be frozen. The temperature range is below-20°C for frozen tissue. The timeline of storage will depend on the temperature condition.
Tissues are preserved at ultra-low temperature during cryopreservation. Once treated with cryoprotectant, they are stored below -135 0C. There are different temperature conditions as well to protect tissue from expiration.
3. Freeze Drying
Freeze-drying requires the analysis of tissue samples for residual water. The resident water content must be less than 5 percent of the dry weight.
True to its name, this preservation method requires high glycerol to tissues. Specified glycerol concentration should be within an acceptable range.
Tissue Storage Monitoring
Probably the most critical monitoring variable is during tissue storage. Evidential data is needed to account for the conditions. Monitoring should be during the whole timeline of tissue storage in the repository. It is a given that storage devices such as freezers are purposely built for tissue storage. The refrigeration devices can add validation that storage temperature is achieved through specifications.
In tissue storage monitoring, different monitoring capacities are needed to address it. Some monitoring systems can adequately enhance the whole monitoring operations in tissue banks.
1. Temperature Monitoring Systems
Tissue banks have different rooms depending on functionality. These are all temperature-controlled rooms capable of storing tissue specimens. Hence, temperature sensors are of the best aid in this instance. When placed strategically, temperature conditions are read consistently.
2. Humidity monitoring systems
The relative humidity is essential to track in cold rooms. Monitoring relative humidity prevents excursion of humidity levels. High relative humidity may be detrimental to tissue storage.
3. Alarm systems
To further the benefits of sensors, alarm systems are valuable as a monitoring solution. There are visual alarms that can be audible to notify any worst-case scenario. A bonus if alarm systems can notify via SMS text warnings.
These monitoring systems are concrete steps to maintain environmental parameters consistently. Any excursion in the environmental controls can lead to cross-contamination.
There are also Tissue Storage Specifications Depending on Methods of Preservation.
- Liquid nitrogen vessels require nitrogen level rulers or portable thermometers to monitor storage. The monitoring equipment reads nitrogen level that needs to be constant. Constant nitrogen levels prevent cross-contamination.
- Double wrapping during storage is necessary for frozen and cryopreserved tissues. Regulatory validation is also required to check if seals and materials are appropriate to their purpose.
- Physical segregation is required for quarantine and released tissues. This is to label them in their designated site distribution distinctly. Such a method of segregation limits the risk of interchanging tissue release.
Tissue Packaging and Labeling
Often, a physical checkup is the face value check in tissue banks. Like most other operations, proper packaging and identification are crucial in tissue monitoring.
Containers should be adequately labeled with precise data. Especially in shipping activities, the labels are primary regulatory requirements for tissue release. The container should include information such as:
- batch and shipment number
- expiry date
- tissue bank supplier
- storage instruction
- product description
Because tissue is a primary commodity in many research, packaging also includes document inserts. There are referred as package insert containing more detailed information regarding the tissue. Some package inserts have:
- sizing information
- antimicrobial processing procedure
- preservatives and concentration
- special instructions referring to thawing or dilution
- quantities of antibiotics during processing
- types of residual processing agent
In a more advanced labeling protocol, barcodes are the norm. Tissue relay through barcode scans eases out the checking activity. But it is always imperative to include package inserts for more pertinent information.
Like any other commodity for distributions, tracking tissue requires utmost priority. Tissue tracking will start from locating and identifying tissues. The monitoring will revolve from procurement to distribution to the actual use of tissues itself.
But more than tissue, relative information is traced during tissue tracking also. These data are defined for traceability but also preserving the integrity of tissue use. Some of the data accounted for in tissue tracking are:
1. Donor identification
a. Procuring organization or tissue bank
b. Donation identification number
c. Date of procurement
d. Site of procurement
e. Type of donation
2. Product Identification
a. Tissue bank identification
b. Type of tissue
c. Pool and split number
d. Expiry date
e. Tissue status
f. Tissue description
i. origin of products
ii. processing steps
iii. materials and additives
g. Issuing facility identification
3. Human Application Identification
a. Date of distribution
b. Clinician identification (end-user or facility name)
It is recommended that tissue banks have a system to report, track and approve the distribution of tissue requests. Such a system is capable of tracing tissue banking activities at all stages.
Importance of Tissue Monitoring
Monitoring technology has developed since manual data collection. There are now wireless data loggers that can simultaneously collect data and sync with a central monitoring platform.
In the case of tissue banking, real-time monitoring and alert capabilities are of the essence. A system designed to monitor and send alarm proactively is a welcome development for tissue facilities.
Intelligent Data Loggers
Data logger innovation has now evolved into a centralized cloud monitoring activity. Such development is capable of data graphing. The graphs can account environmental parameter history of tissue storage. AKCP has a cloud monitoring software that can locate and send alerts relevant to tissue distribution.
A cloud-based monitoring system with wireless sensors streamlines tissue distribution capacities. It will track the real-time transit of tissue and assure recipient authority. AKCP NIST traceable temperature sensors are calibrated can monitor tissue storage temperature with accurate data readings.
Through cloud-based monitoring, live and predictive data is accessible. Data sent in real-time provides quick action steps to negate any tissue distribution risk. The warning systems are crucial features that maintain environmental parameters. This is especially helpful in remote monitoring.
Monitoring Systems Adaptability
In the end, a monitoring system should adapt to different tissue banking circumstances. A fully flexible system should be easy to configure depending on its use. Tissue banking necessitates tissue relay and distribution. To address this, a central monitoring system should cover and track delivery up to remote facilities. Audit trails should also be an incorporated feature of a comprehensive monitoring system. A lot of pertinent information is needed in tissue distribution alone. Audit trails are standards to complete database compliance.
In the end, other than flexibility and usability, sound monitoring should be user-friendly. It has clearly defined user access for all usage levels.