Different Covid-19 Vaccines

Published by Ariel Arcebido on

Different Covid-

Different Covid-19 vaccines are now ready for distribution. Vaccination programs from governments all over the world are in high gear. Pharmaceutical companies operate 24/7 to produce enough vaccines to inoculate people. The logistics of vaccinating the seven billion people worldwide is a gargantuan task. Almost every medical institution in the world aims for this vaccine program to be a success. Delays in vaccine production cause an increase in the death toll and economic ruin in the world. Governments are purchasing all approved different covid-19 vaccines in every pharmaceutical company. The goal is to ramp up the immunization rate and give equal treatment in all countries, poor or rich.

The way different covid-19 vaccines work is to narrow the target features virus. It is the spike protein or enzyme needed for replication. Once identified, it will not be able to replicate itself and attach itself to the healthy cells. Thus, it dies out.

What if a single mutation alters the three-dimensional structure of the protein and the template no longer fits? The vaccine or antibody, or drug may wipe out the competition to take over a mutated virus.

Different Covid-19 Vaccines Have Arrived: A Few Tips to Consider Before Vaccination

The most vital component for stopping epidemics in history has been engineering. It designs systems that can filter and purify the air to kill viruses and other pathogens. An example is using ultraviolet light to control tuberculosis. Innovations in preventing the spread of the virus have been pursued, especially in Israel. Lack of evidence made the public health authorities are hesitant in recommending them.

Re-purposing old drugs like hydroxychloroquine act as mechanisms that do not depend on a stable virus. It shields the spike protein from cell receptors to prevent viral entry and red blood cell clumping, among other effects.

So how does coronavirus spread?

how covid-19 spread
photo credit: www.southwesthealth.org

The coronavirus spreads from person-to-person contact. Droplets from an infected person may carry into the mouths and noses of people nearby.

All infected person may spread it while talking or while breathing in the air. These aerosols are the virus itself that can float or drift around in the air for up to three hours. Any person who is within the area of the infected zone can come down with the coronavirus. A face mask is now required to cut the exposure. The virus can be found on infected surfaces or objects, though this is a less common way for the virus to spread.

Variants can increase the chances of infection.

variants of covid-19 virus
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The concern of different covid-19 vaccines’ effectiveness is that Covid-19 could mutate to evade the vaccinated immune systems. The virus turns cells into “bioproduction lines” that produce copies of the virus and infect more cells. Thus, exposing more victims to the virus. However, the cellular machinery creates a mutation on to the virus’s descendant.

Most of the mutations do not change the behavior of the virus. But, once in a while, a mutation can increase the virus’s strength. Making it more transmissible or increases mortality. One recent mutation is the UK’s 202012/01 and the South African 501.V2. It’s more contagious than the original virus by 50%. The Different Covid-19 Vaccines seem to be effective against both mutants, even in the short term.

The longer the virus stays in people, the greater the chance of dangerous mutations. The sooner people get vaccinated, the lower the chance more mutations will emerge.

Transmission and mortality

covid-19 fatality rate by age
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Covid-19 transmission is more of a problem than mortality. To know why, consider two vital statistics: mortality infection rate (MIR) and the disease replication rate, R0. MIR is the percentage of people infected who are likely to die. The R0 rate is the number of people that a person carrying the disease will infect on average from the time they catch the virus until they show symptoms. This lag time is known as the incubation period, and it ranges from 2 to 14 days with an average of about five days.

The current infection mortality rate is about 1.5% in high-income nations such as the US. As of December 2020, a 1:15 ratio of reproduction in the UK and by January 2021 varied in America from 0.94 to 1.32. For contamination estimates, assume a rate of 1.1 per infection cycle. This means that there is a 1:1 ratio from an infected person to susceptible individuals in the whole course.

For example, since day 0, there are 200,000 new cases of Covid-19 in a large uninfected population. With a 1.5% case fatality rate, the virus kills about 3,000 per day. With a reproduction rate of 1:1, the daily case counts and deaths will grow slow but inexorable. About 3,400 new deaths a day will take place in a week and about 5,300 in a month. And more deaths will happen the longer the pandemic goes. The increase of transmissibility of the mutation and mortality rate is by 50%, and the fatality rate is 2.25%. With a ratio 1:1 rate spread, there will be 5,100 deaths per day after a week and almost 8,000 deaths per day after a month. Once the rate of a new dominant mutant rises by 50%, the reproduction rate will be 1.65 instead of 1.1. Even if the mortality rate stays at 1.5%, daily deaths will surge to 6,000 after one week and 60,000 deaths per day after 30 days.

Things to know about the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine 

moderna covid-19 vaccine
photo credit: www.aljazeera.com

On December 18, 2020, the FDA approved emergency use authorization (EUA) to an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine developed by Moderna collaborated with NIH scientists. The vaccine is to use in people 18 years and older. This is the second COVID-19 vaccine authorized for use in the US.

The FDA granted the EUA by their analysis of efficacy and safety data and the Vaccines and Related Biological Products Advisory Committee (VRBPAC) recommendation, a group of outside experts in infectious disease, vaccinology, microbiology, immunology, and other related fields.

Effectiveness Study

In briefing documents submitted to the FDA, the Moderna vaccine showed an excellent efficacy of 94.1% in preventing COVID-19. This study includes 30,400 adults. There were 196 infections among the study participants. Of these, 185 were in the placebo group, and 11 were in the vaccine group. All severe cases of COVID are in the placebo group. This study shows that the vaccine reduces the risk of severe illness.

The vaccine is effective in people older and younger than 65. All gender and race, with or without medical conditions that put them at high risk.

Usage

This vaccine requires two doses, spaced four weeks apart. There is no data yet if the vaccine is effective in the long term.

It contains synthetic messenger RNA (mRNA), the genetic material that enters human cells and instructs them to produce the spike protein found on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The body will mark the spike protein as a foreign object and signals the antibodies to attack it. Soon after, the cell breaks down the mRNA into harmless pieces. If the antibodies later encounter the actual virus, they can recognize and destroy it before it causes illness.

Moderna Vaccine Side effects

  • pain at the injection site
  • fatigue
  • headache
  • muscle pain,
  • joint pain
  • chills.

Storage 

Different covid-19 vaccines storage requirement varies, the Moderna vaccine requires average freezer temperatures—making the distribution to pharmacies and other facilities with no ultracold storage possible. While Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine requires ultracold storage.

Things to know about the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine

Pfizer Covid-19 vaccine
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On December 11, 2020, the FDA granted the EUA to an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine developed by Pfizer and BioNTech. They tested people 16 years and older. This is the first COVID-19 vaccine approved for use in the US.

Effectiveness Study

Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine trial results report an efficacy rate of 95%. Against COVID-19. The trial showed 44,000 adults, each of whom got two shots, spaced three weeks apart; half received the vaccine and half got a placebo. Of the 170 cases of COVID-19 developed in the study participants, 162 were in the placebo group, and eight were in the vaccine group. Nine of the ten severe COVID cases occurred in the placebo group, suggesting that the vaccine minimized the risk of both mild and severe COVID.

According to the New England Journal of Medicine article, the vaccine was effective to all participants of different races and ethnicities, bodyweight categories, presence or absence of pre-existing medical conditions, and ages (younger and older than 65).

Usage

This vaccine requires two doses, spaced three weeks apart. The first dose provides reasonable protection, but the full pledge protection comes after the second dose.

Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine Side Effects

There haven’t been any serious side effects experienced by the study participants.

  • mild to moderate fatigue 
  • headache
  • Chills
  • fever was also reasonably common.

All symptoms almost always disappeared within 24 to 48 hours.

Storage

Like the Moderna vaccine, the Pfizer/BioNTech is an mRNA vaccine. The vaccine contains synthetic messenger RNA (mRNA) it includes instructions for making proteins. Once mRNA enters the body, it will instruct cells to produce the “spike” protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus as the body sees the spike protein as a threat and produces antibodies to kill it. The mRNA vaccine storage requires very cold temperatures. And improper storage can make the vaccines inactive. AKCP has an effective temperature monitoring system for this type of storage.

Will these different COVID-19 mRNA vaccines work against the new coronavirus variants?

Evidence implies that the Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA vaccine is effective against coronavirus variants. Testing of the Moderna mRNA vaccine against the new variants is ongoing.

The two new variants are more contagious than previous SARS-CoV-2 variants, but they do not appear to be any more fatal than the previous ones. One, called B.1.1.7, was first detected in the United Kingdom. The other, called B.1.351, came from South Africa. Countries around the globe already felt both variants.

Both variants contain mutations in the virus’s spike protein. Spike proteins on the surface of the SARS-CoV-2 virus attached to and allow the virus to enter human cells. Both variants have the same key mutation (called N501Y) on the spike protein. Thus, it will enable the virus to bind tight to human cells.

To see the effectiveness of the Pfizer/BioNTech mRNA vaccine against the new variants, researchers created a virus with the N501Y mutation. They used blood samples from 20 participants in the vaccine trial and exposed the samples to the mutated virus. The participants’ blood responds to the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. The antibodies blocked the mutated virus from infecting cells as it stopped the virus without the mutation.

Conclusion:

Even if COVID-19 is eradicated, “it’s a safe bet this will not be the last virus to infect humans and take advantage of it. This virus exchanges genetic material with just about anything that is alive and is likely to pass on its contents to other air-borne pathogens.

This is a race against time, in which the virus is gaining ground. As it spreads faster, infects more and more people, and mutates billions of times in its victims, the chances of ever more resistant and deadlier mutations grow. The rate of vaccinations must increase to reduce the size of the susceptible population and slow the spread.

Thus, the challenge is to vaccinate the entire world as fast as possible, especially when many citizens in other countries hesitate or avoid getting the vaccine. Eliminating the likelihood of deadly mutations that can create new pandemics is the goal.

The bottom line? Even if the first clusters of people get vaccinated, it’s best to continue wearing masks and maintaining physical distance to protect others who have not received a vaccination.

Reference link:

linkedin.com/pulse/preventing-covid-19-from-outrunning-humanity-yossi-sheffi/?trackingId=rLvAwLfHYiA0pMKLGcuUDg%3D%3D

https://www.health.harvard.edu/diseases-and-conditions/preventing-the-spread-of-the-coronavirus.


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